This contribution presents the stratigraphy and structural geology of the Sanctuary of Zeus at Mt. Lykaion in a way that is connected with the regional tectonic history and the active contemporary tectonics of the Peloponessos. The geological factors and conditions of the Sanctuary contributed to Mt. Lykaion arising as a pan-Arcadian and pan-Hellenic sanctuary. The geoarchaeological specifics are emerging from still-ongoing interdisciplinary field and laboratory activities central to the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project. Already it is revealing how geological and tectonic factors relate to historical, political, economic, geographic, religious, and cultural dimensions of the Sanctuary of Zeus, Mt. Lykaion.