Heilbron, M., Pedrosa-Soares, A., Neto, M., da Silva, L., Trouw, R. and Janasi, V. 2004.   Brasiliano Orogens in Southeast and South Brazil. In: (eds.) Weinberg, R., Trouw, R., Fuck, R., and Hackspacher, P., The 750-550 Ma Brasiliano Event of South America, Journal of the Virtual Explorer, Electronic Edition, ISSN 1441-8142, Volume 17, Paper 4.

Brasiliano Orogens in Southeast and South Brazil

Monica Heilbron



Antônio Carlos Pedrosa-Soares

CPMTC-IGC-UFMG, Belo Horizonte


Mário Campos Neto

Instituto de Geociências da USP, São Paulo, Brazil


Luiz Carlos da Silva

CPRM, Brasília


Rudolph Allard Johannes Trouw

Depto.Geologia-IGEO- UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Valdeci Janasi

Instituto de Geociências da USP, São Paulo, Brazil



Several NeoProterozoic orogenic belts occur in southeast and south Brazil, in the so-called Mantiqueira Province. From NE to SW these orogens are: the Araçuaí, Ribeira, Southern Brasília, Dom Feliciano and São Gabriel. They developed during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny that resulted in the amalgamation of Gondwana. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding of the evolution of these belts.

In order to facilitate correlation the following simplified tectono-stratigraphic subdivision is adopted:

  1. basement rocks older than 1.75 Ga;

  2. metasedimentary sequences of intracontinental basins, with ages between 1.75 and 1.0 Ga;

  3. Neoproterozoic passive margin successions;

  4. pre-collisional magmatic arcs of oceanic and active continental margin settings and related sedimentary successions (ca. 790 Ma to 585 Ma);

  5. syn-collisional granitoids;

  6. late orogenic sedimentary successions and related bimodal magmatism.

The Neoproterozoic orogenic evolution started with the consumption of the Goianides and Adamastor oceans, located at the western and southeastern sides of the São Francisco paleocontinent. Subduction generated magmatic arc suites and was followed by arc-continent and continent-continent collisions. The collisional episodes were diachronous, the oldest are recorded in the SW of the region considered, in the Apiaí Terrane (ca. 790 Ma) and in the São Gabriel Orogen (ca. 700 Ma).

They were followed by collisions in the southern Brasília Orogen, in the Apiaí Terrane (ca. 630-610 Ma) and in the Dom Feliciano Orogen (ca. 600 Ma). Then collision occurred in the Ribeira and Araçuaí Orogens in the period between 580 Ma and 520 Ma. Finally, the extensional collapse of the orogens took place from the Cambrian to Ordovician (ca. 520-480 Ma).

Keywords: Brasiliano Orogeny, Araçuaí Orogen, Ribeira Orogen, Apiaí-Guaxupé Terrane, Southern Brasília Orogen, Dom Feliciano Orogen

Table of Contents

Tectono-stratigraphic subdivision
Northern segment: The Araçuaí Orogen
Concept, Limits and Tectonic Subdivisions
Basement of the Araçuaí Orogen
Neoproterozoic Sequences: The Precursor Basin of the Araçuaí Orogen
Orogenic Evolution
Evolution Model for the Araçuaí Orogen
The Ribeira Orogen
Tectonic subdivision
Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement
Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic
São João del Rei Megasequence
Carandaí Megasequence
Neoproterozoic Successions: Precursor Basins of the Ribeira and Southern Brasília Orogens
Andrelândia Megasequence
Metasedimentary Units of the Paraíba do Sul and Oriental Terranes
Búzios-Palmital Metasedimentary Association
Evolution of the Southern Brasília and Ribeira Orogens
Closing of the Goianides Ocean
Collisional Stage (Collision I) ca. 630-610 Ma
Late to Post-collisional Stage and Related Molasse Basins
Closure of the Adamastor Ocean and Construction of the Ribeira Orogen
Collisional Stage (Collision II) ca. 590-560 Ma
Stage of Collision III (ca. 535-510 Ma)
Post-collisional stage (ca. 510-480 Ma)
The Apiaí, São Roque and Embú terranes
Apiaí and São Roque Terranes
Paleoproterozoic Basement
Mesoproteozoic Metasedimentary Units
Neoproterozoic metasedimentary units
Orogenic stages
Post-Orogenic Stage
The Embú Terrane
The São Gabriel and Dom Feliciano Orogens
São Gabriel Orogen
Precursor Basin of the São Gabriel Orogen
Orogenic stage
Dom Feliciano Orogen
Precursor Basins of the Dom Feliciano Orogen
Orogenic stage
Synthesis of the Proterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil