Flow simulations

DSMs can be analysed, either for stratigraphic or sedimentological horizon mapping, or for 3-D geobody description. The resulting three dimensional data can be used to construct realistic 3-D reservoir models. These deterministic models can be analysed for sandbody architecture (e.g. channel sinuosity), connectivity between geobodies or act as a reference for modellers to validate their model simulations. Figure 8 shows a fluid flow simulation through a reservoir model of a heterogeneous, turbidite sand-sheet system. The model is based on an outcrop analogue in the French Alpine region, and it was built with Roxar’s IRAP RMS software. Animations allow a much better understanding of flow paths and the identification of problem areas, for example zones of by-passed hydrocarbons.

Figure 8. Simulated fluid flow by injector/producer well pairs

View animation

Animation shows simulated fluid flow by injector/producer well pairs through a 3-D turbidite, sand-rich sheet system, petroleum reservoir model. The reservoir model has been constructed in Roxar RMS software using a combination of field work, aerial photogrammetry and constrained to analogue reservoir poroperm characteristics. The model was then exported to ECLIPSE software, where the simulations were undertaken.

Workflow overview

Figure 9 shows the workflow overview, summarising the steps undertaken to reach the flow simulation stage. Several software applications and hardware platforms are used. Deterministic reservoir models derived from 3-D outcrop analogues, realise a quantum leap in field geological acquisition.

Figure 9. 4-stage workflow

4-stage workflow

4-stage workflow that is utilised for this research: a) digital photogrammetry creates: a Digital Elevation Model, an Ortho-Rectified Image and a 3-D draped view; b) integration of aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry forms a Digital Outcrop Model; c) insert 3-D volumetric information (eg. GPR) to form a Digital Solid Model and; d) construct a petroleum reservoir model from interrogation of the DSM, then undertake fluid flow simulations on the model.